The territory of India constitutes a major portion of the Indian Subcontinent, situated on the Indian plate, the northerly portion of the Indo Australian plate, in Southern asia. India's northern and northeastern states are partially situated in the Himalayan mountain Range. The rest of northern, central and eastern India consists of the fertile Indo Gangetic plain. In the west, bordering southeast Pakistan, lies the Thar desert. The southern Indian Peninsula is almost entirely composed of the Deccan plateau, which is flanked by two hilly coastal ranges, the Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats.
India is home to several major rivers, including the Ganga, Brahmaputra, Yamuna, Godavari, Kaveri, Narmada, and Krishna. India has three archipelagos - Lakshdweep off the southwest coast, the Andaman & Nicobar island volcanic island chain to the southeast, and the Sunderbans in the Gangetic delta in West Bengal.
Climate in India varies from tropical in the south to more temerate in the Himalayan north, with elevated regions in the north receiving sustained snowfall in winters. India's climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert. The Himalayas, along with the Hindu Kush mountains in Pakistan, provide a barrier to the cold winds from Central Asia. This keeps most of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations in similar latitudes. The Thar Desert is responsible for attracting the moisture laden Southwest monsoon winds in that provide most of India's rainfall between June to September.